Osteoporosis

WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS ?

It’s a disease characterized by decrease in bone density, mass and quality. Bones become increasingly porous and brittle thus increasing risk of fractures.

There are 2 types of Osteoporosis:

  • Primary
  • Secondary

Primary Osteoporosis is divided into two types

  1. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis:- It is associated with the process of normal aging. It usually develops in women after menopause when the amount of estrogen in the body decreases. It decreases the overall strength of the bone and leads to wrist and vertebral body fractures. It is common in women than in men and develops in the age of 50 to 70 years.
  2. Senile Osteoporosis:- This condition common with both men and women above the age of 60 years. When Natural process of aging is not supported with good diet and exercise, it makes people susceptible to this type of bone disorder.
  • Secondary– Secondary Osteoporosis is caused by a variety of factors like alcohol abuse, smoking, certain diseases or certain medications. It develops at the age of 70 and more. It usually affects women twice as frequently as men.

Diseases lead to secondary osteoporosis are:

  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Hypogonadism

Osteopenia- is a term used to describe decrease in bone mass.

T-scores: are used to classify people as osteoporotic. Normal bone mineral density score is -1 or higher. -1 to-2.5 is osteopenia and -2.5 or lower is osteoporotic.

MAIN CAUSES OF OP :

  • Age: Age is one of the factors that cause Osteoporosis. Aging naturally weakens bones.
  • Gender: Women are at greater risk as compared to their male.
  • Genetic: If your parents is suffering from Osteoporosis then you can be at a higher risk of suffering from the same. 
  • Thinner body frames have reduced bone mass and susceptible to Osteoporosis.
  • Cancer treatments may result at irregular hormonal levels and reduces estrogen and testosterone lead to osteoporosis.
  • Thyroid medication and overactive thyroid gland leads to osteoporosis.
  • Diet with low calcium, vitamin and protein concentration lead to bone disorders.

RISK FACTORS OF OP :

  • Alcohol consumption
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco lead to various disorders including osteoporosis.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION :

  • Silent disease- no early clinical signs or symptoms
  • No symptoms till bone loss are advanced and result
    in fractures.
  • Common fracture sites include proximal femur, vertebrae, proximal humerus, hip and pelvis, distal radius and tibia.
  • Many develop secondary orthopedic problems
    related to posture, fractures and decrease in
    physical conditioning.

 

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :

 

  • Back pain- episodic, low thoracic/high lumbar
  • Compression fracture of the spine
  • Bone fractures
  • Decrease in height
  • Kyphosis
  • Dowagers hump
  • Decreases activity tolerance
  • Early satiety

 

PHYSICAL THERAPY MANAGEMENT :

  • Weight bearing exercises
  • Flexibility exercises
  • Strengthening exercises
  • Postural rehab
  • Balance exercises

HOW DOES PHYSIOTHERAPY HELP IN OP? :

  • Strengthens your bones and muscles
  • Prevents bone thinning
  • Helps reduce falls
  • Pain management

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