Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the brain that leads to shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination.It is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. It affects movement. It usually happens when nerve cells in the brain don’t produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine.

Paresis: Paresis is a condition in which there is a weakness of voluntary movement, or partial loss of voluntary movement or by impaired movement.


Parkinson’s disease is caused by loss of neurons in a region of the brain that coordinates motor functions (movement).

  • Dopamine is involved in the control of motor movement in the brain. When the level of dopamine in the brain is very low, there is loss of control of movement, one of the main features of PD
  • Genes
  • Environmental factors
  • The presence of Lewy bodies.
  • Age
  • Exposure to toxins


Symptoms may be mild at first. For instance, you may have a mild tremor or a slight feeling that one leg or foot is stiff and dragging. Symptoms may affect one or both sides of the body, and can include:

  • Blinking
  • Constipation
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Drooling
  • Problems with balance and walking
  • No expression in the face (like you are wearing a mask)
  • Movement problems, which include:
  • Difficulty starting movement, such as starting to walk or getting out of a chair
  • Difficulty continuing to move
  • Bradykinesia (Slowness of voluntary movements).
  • Loss of small or fine hand movements; writing may become small and difficult to read; eating becomes difficult.
  • Rigid or stiff muscles, often beginning in the legs.
  • Shaking, called tremors
  • Usually occurs in the limbs at rest, or when the arm or leg is held out
  • Goes away when you move
  • Eventually may be seen in the head, lips, tongue, and feet
  • May be worse when tired, excited, or stressed
  • Finger-thumb rubbing (pill-rolling tremor) may be present
  • Slowed, quieter speech and monotone voice
  • Stooped position
  • Low blood pressure when getting up, sweating, drooling, lack of body temperature control. These problems are due to something called autonomic dysfunction.
  • Anxiety, stress, and tension
  • Confusion
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Fainting
  • Hallucinations
  • Memory loss


  • Difficulty starting or finishing voluntary movements
  • Jerky, stiff movements
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Shaking (tremors)
  • Changes in heart rate


  • To maintain and improve mobility
  • Flexibility
  • Strength
  • Gait
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Quality of life
  • Rehabilitate to ADL